Research

Click the links below to learn more about the research behind the Stop Injury Now program and the Örebro Assessment tool. Questions? Contact us here.

 

CHRONIC PAIN

Shot of a senior woman using a digital tablet while sitting on the sofa at home

  1. Wall PD & Melzack R. Textbook of Pain (5th ed.). London: Elsevier. 2005: http://www.amazon.com/Wall-Melzacks-Textbook-Pain-Consult/dp/0702040592
  2. Meeus M, Nijs J, Van Oosterwijck J, Van Alsenoy V & Truijen S. Pain physiology education improves pain beliefs in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome compared with pacing and self-management education: a double blind randomized control trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(8):1153-1159 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684894
  3. Vlaeyen JW, Dole-Snijders AM, Boeren RG & van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. 1995;62(3):363-372 

: http://ptjournal.apta.org/content/suppl/2011/09/20/91.10.DC2/October_2011.pdf
  4. Moseley GL. Evidence for a direct relationship between cognitive and physical change during an education intervention in people with chronic low back pain. Eur J Pain. 2004;8(1):39-45 
: http://www.bodyinmind.org/wp-content/uploads/Mosely-2004-EJP.pdf
  5. Merskey H & Bogduk N. Classification of Chronic Pain (2nd ed.). Seattle: IASP Press. 1994 
: http://www.iasp-pain.org/files/Content/ContentFolders/Publications2/FreeBooks/Classification-of-Chronic-Pain.pdf
  6. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care and Education. Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education and Research. Washington (DC) The National Academies Press. 2011 
: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92525/
  7. Weiner BK. Spine update: thy biopsychosocial model and spine care. Spine. Jan 15 2008; 33(2):219-223 
: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527172/
  8. Henrotin YE, Cedrashci C, Duplan B, Bazin T, Duqesnoy B. Information and low back pain management: a systematic review. May 15 
2006;31(11):E326-334 
: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508209/
  9. Houben RM, Ostelo RW, Vlaeyen JW, Wolters PM, Peters M, Stomp-van den Berg SG. Health care providers’ orientations towards common low back pain predict perceived harmfulness of physical activities and recommendations regarding return to normal activity. Eur J Pain. Apr 2005; 9(2):173-183 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15737810
  10. Ryan CG, Gray HG, Newton M, Granat MH. Pain biology education and exercise classes compared to pain biology education alone for individuals with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Man Ther. Aug 2010;15(4):382-387 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20359937
  11. Moseley GL. Widespread brain activity during an abdominal task markedly reduced after pain physiology education: fMRI evaluation of a single patient with chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother. 2005;51(1):49-52 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15748125
  12. Moseley GL. Unravelling the barriers to reconceptualisation of the problem in chronic pain: the actual and perceived ability of patients and health professionals to understand the neurophysiology. J Pain. 2003;4(4):184-189 : http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(03)00488-7/abstract
  13. Moseley L. Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother. 2002;48(4):297-302 : http://www.bodyinmind.org/wp-content/uploads/Moseley-2002-PT-Education-AustJPhysio.pdf
  14. Van oosterwijck J, Nijs, Meeus M, et al. Pain neurophysiology education improves cognitions, pain thresholds, and movement performance in 
people with chronic whiplash: A pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48(1):43-58 : http://www.rehab.research.va.gov/jour/11/481/pdf/vanoosterwijck.pdf
  15. Moseley GL. Joining forces- combining cognition-targeted motor control training with group or individual pain physiology education: a 
successful treatment for chronic low back pain. J Man Manip Therap. 2003;11(2):88-94 
: file:///C:/Users/chlpt10/Downloads/Joining%20forces%20–%20combining%20cognition-targeted%20motor%20control%20training%20with%20group%20or%20individual%20pain%20physiology%20education-%20a%20successful%20treatment%20for%20chronic%20low%20back%20pain%20(4).pdf
  16. Moseley GL. Evidence for a direct relationship between cognitive and physical change during as education intervention in people with chronic 
low back pain. Eur J Pain. Feb 2004;8(1):39-45 : http://www.bodyinmind.org/wp-content/uploads/Mosely-2004-EJP.pdf
  17. Moseley GL, Hodges PW, Nicholas MK. A randomized controlled trial of intensive neurophysiology education in chronic low back pain. Clinical journal of Pain. 2004;20:324-330 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15322439
  18. Meeus M, Nijs J, Van Oosterwijck J, Van Alsenoy V. Truijen S. Pain Physiology Education Improves Pain Beliefs in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Compared With Pacing and Self-Management Education: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Aug 2010;91(8):1153-1159 
: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684894
  19. Nijs J, Van Houdenhove, et al. Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain: Application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice. Man Ther. 2010;15(2):135-141 
: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40784934_Nijs_J_Van_Houdenhove_B_Oostendorp_R_A_Recognition_of_central_sensitization_in_patients_with_musculoskeletal_pain_application_of_pain_neurophysiology_in_manual_therapy_practice_Man_Ther_15_135-141
  20. Moseley L. Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother. 2002; 28: 297-302 
: http://www.bodyinmind.org/wp-content/uploads/Moseley-2002-PT-Education-AustJPhysio.pdf
  21. Louw A, Diener I, Landers MR, Puentedura EJ. Preoperative pain neuroscience education for lumbar radiculopathy: a multi-center randomized 
controlled trial with one-year follow-up. 2014;39(18):1449-57 
: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24875964
  22. Nijs J, van Wilgen CP et al. How to explain central sensitization to patients with ‘unexplained’ chronic musculoskeletal pain; practice guidelines. 
Man Ther. 2011;16(5):413-418 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21632273
  23. Louw A, Diener I, et al. The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(12):2041-2056 : http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(11)00670-8/abstract

NECK PAIN

  1. Linton SJ, Hellsing AL, Hallden K. A population-based study of spinal pain among 35–45-year-old individuals. Prevalence, sick leave, and health care use. Spine 1998;23(13):1457-63 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9670397
  2. Carroll LJ, Hogg-Johnson S, van der Velde G, et al. Course and prognostic factors for neck pain in the general population: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine 2008;33(4 Suppl):S75-82 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271093/
  3. Wright A, Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ. Outcomes of disabling cervical spine disorders in compensation injuries. A prospective comparison to tertiary rehabilitation response for chronic lumbar spinal disorders. Spine 1999;24(2):178-83 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9926390
  4. Childs JD, Cleland JA, Elliott JM, et al. Neck pain: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health from the Orthopedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy 2008;38(9):A1-A34 : https://www.orthopt.org/ICF/Neck%20Pain%20Clinical%20Guideline%20-%20JOSPT%20-%20Sept%202008.pdf
  5. Walker MJ, Boyles RE, Young BA, et al. The e ectiveness of manual physical therapy and exercise for mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2008;33(22):2371-8 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18923311
  6. Hoving JL, Koes BW, de Vet HC, et al. Manual therapy, physical therapy or continued care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(10):713-22 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020139
  7. Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines TA, et al. A Cochrane review of manipulation and mobilization for mechanical neck disorders. Spine 2004;29(14):1541-8 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247576
  8. Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. The e ectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy and treatment by the general practitioner for 
nonspecific back and neck complaints. A randomized clinical trial. Spine 1992;17(1):28-35 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1531552
  9. Jull G, Trott P, Potter H, et al. A randomized controlled trial of exercise and manipulative therapy for cervicogenic headache. Spine 2002;27(17):1835- 
43; discussion 43 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12221344
  10. Bronfort G, Evans R, Nelson B, Aker PD, Goldsmith CH, Vernon H. A randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with 
chronic neck pain. Spine 2001;26(7):788-97; discussion 98-9 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295901
  11. Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, Goldsmith CH. Two year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for 
patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 2002;27(21):2383-9 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12438988
  12. Gonzalez-Iglesias J, Fernandez-de-las-Penas C, Cleland JA, Gutierrez-Vega Mdel R. Thoracic spine manipulation for the management of patients 
with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy 2009;39(1):20-7 :http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19209478
  13. Korthals-de Bos IB, Hoving JL, van Tulder MW, et al. Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy and general practitioner care for neck pain: 
economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326(7395):911-6 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12714472
  14. Fritz JM, Brennan GP. Preliminary Examination of a Proposed Treatment-Based Classification System for Patients Receiving Physical Therapy 
Interventions for Neck Pain. Phys Ther 2007 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374633
  15. Birch S, Jamison RN. Controlled trial of Japanese acupuncture for chronic myofascial neck pain: assessment of specific and nonspecific e ects of 
treatment. Clin J Pain 1998;14(3):248-55 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9758075
  16. Borenstein DG, Korn S. Efficacy of a low-dose regimen of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in acute skeletal muscle spasm: results of two placebo- 
controlled trials. Clin Ther 2003;25(4):1056-73 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809957
  17. Cleland JA, Childs JD, Fritz JM, Whitman JM. Interrater reliability of the history and physical examination in patients with mechanical neck pain. 
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87(10):1388-95 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17023251
  18. Wainner RS, Fritz JM, Irrgang JJ, Boninger ML, Delitto A, Allison S. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the clinical examination and patient self- report measures for cervical radiculopathy. Spine 2003;28(1):52-62 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12544957

LOW BACK PAIN

  1. Childs JD, etal. Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs. BMC Health Services Research.201515:150
    http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-015-0830-3
  2. Graves J, et. al. Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging among Workers with Acute Occupational Low Back PainHealth Services Research.201449:2.  http://www.hsr.org/hsr/abstract.jsp?aid=49995831895
  3. Fritz JM, Cleland JA, Speckman M, Brennan GP, Hunter SJ. Physical therapy for acute low back pain: associations with subsequent healthcare costs. Spine 2008;33(16):1800-5 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18628714
  4. Fritz JM, Cleland JA, Brennan GP. Does adherence to the guideline recommendation for active treatments improve the quality of care for patients with acute low back pain delivered by physical therapists? Med Care 2007;45(10):973-80 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890995
  5. Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of LBP: reaching a specific diagnosis is often impossible. Archives of internal medicine 2002;162(13):1444-7; discussion 7-8 : http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=211737
  6. Jarvik JG, Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain with emphasis on imaging. Annals of internal medicine 2002;137(7):586-97 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353946
  7. Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Heagerty PJ, Haynor DR, Boyko EJ, Deyo RA. Three-year incidence of low back pain in an initially asymptomatic cohort: clinical and imaging risk factors. Spine 2005;30(13):1541-8; discussion 9 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15990670
  8. Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, et al. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging vs radiographs for patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2003;289(21):2810-8 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12783911
  9. Brennan GP, Fritz JM, Hunter SJ, Thackeray A, Delitto A, Erhard RE. Identifying subgroups of patients with acute/subacute “nonspecific” low back pain: results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2006;31(6):623-31 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16540864
  10. Furlan AD, Brosseau L, Imamura M, Irvin E. Massage for low-back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine 2002;27(17):1896-910 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12221356
  11. Fritz J, Delitto A, Erhard RE. Comparison of classification-based physical therapy with therapy based on clinical practice guidelines for patients with acute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2003;28(13):1363-71 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12838091
  12. Flynn T, Fritz J, Whitman J, et al. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with spinal manipulation. Spine 2002;27(24):2835-43 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12486357
  13. Childs JD, Fritz JM, Flynn T, Irrgang JJ, Delitto A, Johnson KK. Validation of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with low back pain likely to benefit from spinal manipulation: A validation study. Annals of internal medicine 2004;141(12):920-8 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15611489
  14. Whitman JM, Flynn T, Fritz JM. Nonsurgical management of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a literature review and a case series of three patients managed with physical therapy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2003;15(1):77-vii : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10867906_Nonsurgical_management_of_patients_with_lumbar_spinal_stenosis_A_literature_review_and_a_case_series_of_three_patients_managed_with_physical_therapy
  15. Werneke M, Hart DL. Centralization phenomenon as a prognostic factor for chronic low back pain and disability. Spine 2001;26(7):758-64 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295896
  16. Long A, Donelson R, Fung T. Doesit Matter Which Exercise?:A Randomized Control Trial of Exercise for Low Back Pain. Spine 2004; 29(23): 2593-602 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15564907
  17. Browder DA, Childs JD, Cleland JA, Fritz JM. Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Physical therapy 2007;87(12):1608-18; discussion 577-9 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17895350
  18. Hicks GE, Fritz JM, Delitto A, McGill SM. Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization program. Spine 2005;86:1753-62 : http://www.udel.edu/PT/PT%20Clinical%20Services/journalclub/caserounds/07_08/Sept07/Preliminary.pdf
  19. OSullivan PB, Twomey LT, Allison GT. Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Spine 1997;22:2959-67 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9431633
  20. Niemisto L, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Rissanen P, Lindgren KA, Sarna S, Hurri H. A randomized trial of combined manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation compared to physician consultation alone for chronic low back pain. Spine 2003;28(19):2185-91 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14520029
  21. Fritz JM, Lindsay W, Matheson JW, et al. Is there a subgroup of patients with low back pain likely to benefit from mechanical traction? Results of a randomized clinical trial and subgrouping analysis. Spine 2007;32(26):E793-800 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091473
  22. Ehrmann-Feldman D, Rossignol M, Abenhaim L, Gobeille D. Physician referral to physical therapy in a cohort of workers compensated for low back pain. Physical therapy 1996;76(2):150-6; discussion 6-7 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8592718
  23. UK BEAM T. United Kingdom back exercise and manipulation ( UK BEAM) randomized trial: e ectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. BMJ Online First 2004:BMJ, doi: 10.1136/bmj.38282.669225.AE : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535454/
  24. UK BEAM T. United Kingdom back exercise and manipulation ( UK BEAM) randomized trial: cost effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. BMJ 2004:BMJ, doi: 10.1136/bmj.38282.607859.AE : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535454/
  25. Chou R, Hu man LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Annals of internal medicine 2007;147(7):492-504 : http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=736834
  26. Deyo RA, Phillips WR. Low back pain: A primary care challenge. Spine 1996;21(24):2826-32 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9112706
  27. French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ. A Cochrane review of superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Spine 2006;31 (9):998-1006 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641776
  28. Chou R, Hu man LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Annals of internal medicine 2007;147(7):505-14 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17909211
  29. van Tulder MW, Scholten RJ, Koes BW, Deyo RA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine 2000;25(19):2501-13 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11013503
  30. van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, Solway S, Bouter LM. Muscle relaxants for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the cochrane collaboration. Spine 2003;28(17):1978-92 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12973146
  31. Whitman J, Flynn T, Wainner RS, Magel J. Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Management of the Lumbar Spine, Pelvis, and Hip Region. San Antonio, TX: Manipulations, Inc.; 2002 : http://www.amazon.com/Orthopaedic-Manual-Physical-Therapy-Management/dp/0971479224
  32. Burton AK, Waddell G, Tillotson KM, Summerton N. Information and advice to patients with back pain can have a positive e ect. A randomized controlled trial of a novel educational booklet in primary care. Spine 1999;24(23):2484-91 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10626311
  33. George SZ, Fritz JM, Bialosky JE, Donald DA. The effect of a fear-avoidance-based physical therapy intervention for patients with acute low back pain: results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2003;28(23):2551-60 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14652471
  34. Mannion AF, Muntener M, Taimela S, Dvorak J. A randomized clinical trial of three active therapies for chronic low back pain. Spine 1999;24 (23):2435-48 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10626305
  35. O’Sullivan, P., & Lin, I. (2014). Acute Low Back Pain Beyond Drug Therapies. Pain Management Today, 1(1), 8-14 : http://www.pain-ed.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Osullivan-and-Lin-Pain-management-today-2014.pdf
  36. Webster, B., Bauer, A., Choi, Y., Cifuentes, M., & Pransky, G. (2013). Iatrogenic Consequences of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute, Work- Related, Disabling Low Back Pain. Spine, 38(22), 1939-1946 : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883826

Shoulder Pain

  1. Winters JC, Sobel JS, Groenier KH, Arendzen JH, Meyboom-de Jong B. The long-term course of shoulder complaints: a prospective study in general practice. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999;38(2):160-3.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10342630
  2. van der Windt DA, Koes BW, de Jong BA, Bouter LM. Shoulder disorders in general practice: incidence, patient characteristics, and management. Ann Rheum Dis 1995;54(12):959-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8546527 
  3. Bergman GJ, Winters JC, Groenier KH, et al. Manipulative therapy in addition to usual medical care for patients with shoulder dysfunction and pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2004;141(6):432-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15381516
  4. Bang MD, Deyle GD. Comparison of supervised exercise with and without manual physical therapy for patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2000;30(3):126-37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10721508
  5. Winters JC, Jorritsma W, Groenier KH, Sobel JS, Meyboom-de Jong B, Arendzen HJ. Treatment of shoulder complaints in general practice: long term results of a randomised, single blind study comparing physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection. Bmj 1999;318(7195):1395-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10334751
  6. Hay EM, Thomas E, Paterson SM, Dziedzic K, Croft PR. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for the treatment of new episodes of unilateral shoulder pain in primary care. Ann Rheum Dis 2003;62(5):394-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12695148
  7. Mintken PE, Cleland JA, Carpenter KJ, et al. Some Factors Predict Successful Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals With Shoulder Pain Receiving Cervicothoracic Manipulation: A Single-Arm Trial. Phys Ther 2010; 90:26-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19959652
  8. Park HB, Yokota A, Gill HS, Rassi GE, McFarland EG. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Tests for the Different Degrees of Subacromial Impingement Syndrome. JBJS 2005; 87A(7):1446-1455. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15995110
  9. Philadelphia Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on selected rehabilitation interventions for shoulder pain. Phys Ther 2001;81(10):1719-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11589645
  10. Leduc BE, Caya J, Tremblay S, Bureau NJ, Dumont M. Treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder by acetic acid iontophoresis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84(10):1523-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14586921
  11. Ebenbichler GR, Erdogmus CB, Resch KL, et al. Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. N Engl J Med 1999;340(20):1533-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10332014
  12. Flynn TW, Whitman J, Magel J. Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Management of the Cervical-Thoracic Spine & Ribcage. San Antonio,TX: Manipulations, Inc.; 2000.  http://academic.regis.edu/clinicaleducation/pdf%27s/Cleland_tx%20manip%20for%20neck%20pain.pdf
  13. Wainner RS, Fritz JM, Irrgang JJ, Boninger ML, Delitto A, Allison S. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the clinical examination and patient self-report measures for cervical radiculopathy. Spine 2003;28(1):52-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12544957

Knee and Hip Pain

  1. Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham osteoarthritis study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1987;30:914-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3632732
  2. Felson DT. The epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis: results from the Framingham osteoarthritis study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1990;20:42-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2287948
  3. Maillefert JF, Gueguen A, Monreal M, et al. Sex differences in hip osteoarthritis: results of a longitudinal study in 508 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 2003;62(10):931-4. http://ard.bmj.com/content/74/Suppl_2/373.2
  4. Felson DT. Epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Epidemiol Rev 1988;10:1-28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3066625
  5. Aigner T, Dudhia J. Genomics of osteoarthritis. Current Opinion Rheumatol 2003;15(5):634-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12960493
  6. O’Reilly SC, Muir KR, Doherty M. Occupation and knee pain: a community study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8(2):78-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12960493
  7. Birchfield PC. Osteoarthritis overview. Geriatric Nurse 2001;22(3):124-30; quiz 30-1.
  8. Dieppe P. Osteoarthritis: time to shift the paradigm. This includes distinguishing between severe disease and common minor disability. Bmj 1999;318(7194):1299-300.
  9. Schlesinger N. Osteoarthritis: pathology, epidemiology and risk factors. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; State of the Art Reviews 2001;15(1):1- 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17079976
  10. Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, et al. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis. Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American Rheumatism Association. Arthritis Rheum 1986;29(8):1039-49. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3741515
  11. Balint G, Szebenyi B. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Guidelines and current pitfalls. Drugs 1996;52 Suppl 3:1-13.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8911794
  12. Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum 1991;34(5):505-14.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8911794
  13. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 (2):CD002946. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8911794
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